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Introduction

The morel mushroom, with its brain-like wrinkles and hollow stem, is a springtime treasure for mushroom hunters and gourmets alike.  Scientifically classified as Morchella (rhymes with "umbrella"),  the morel's unique cap isn't actually a smooth surface, but rather a network of ridges and pits that resemble a honeycomb.  The origin of the word "morel" is a bit of a mystery, with some believing it comes from the Latin word for "little mortar," perhaps referencing the mushroom's shape, while others believe it comes from a Middle French word for "mushroom." Whatever the etymology, these fascinating fungi pop up from the forest floor in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, typically in the spring months,  fruiting when the weather warms and there's enough moisture in the soil.



Morel mushrooms, scientifically known as Morchella, are one of the most coveted fungi among foragers and gourmets alike. Renowned for their unique appearance and exquisite flavor, morels are a true delicacy. However, their ecology, growth patterns, and the broader world of fungi they belong to are equally fascinating. This article delves into the scientific intricacies of morel mushrooms, their growth, the role of mycelium, the safety of mushroom consumption, and the hidden wonders of the fungal world.


Scientific Classification and Morphology

The morel mushroom belongs to the genus Morchella, which is part of the family Morchellaceae within the order Pezizales. Morels are easily recognizable by their distinctive honeycomb-like structure. The cap is composed of a network of ridges and pits, and the entire mushroom is hollow. These mushrooms vary in color from light yellow to dark brown and are typically 2 to 12 centimeters tall.


Seasonal Growth: Why Spring?

Morel mushrooms primarily grow in the spring, a phenomenon driven by a combination of environmental factors. Spring provides the optimal conditions for morel growth: a combination of moist soil, warming temperatures, and the presence of decaying organic matter. Morels have a symbiotic relationship with certain tree species, particularly those that are dying or dead, such as elms, ash, and apple trees. The seasonal change in temperature and moisture content triggers the fruiting bodies of morels to emerge from the ground, usually after a few warm days followed by rain.


False Morels

False morels, the mischievous imposters of the mushroom world, are a collection of fungi with a deceptively nasty appearance.  These springtime tricksters, like their true morel cousins, fruit in the cool, damp days of early spring.  However, unlike the true morel's honeycomb cap, false morels sport wrinkled, brain-like folds that some find unsettling.  Their scientific names are a bit of a tongue twister, belonging to various genera like Gyromitra, Verpa, and Helvella.  As for the name "false morel," well, that's pretty self-explanatory.  These fungi are masters of disguise, mimicking the true morel's shape and springtime emergence.  But forget about any rocket fuel properties – while some false morels are edible, others contain toxins that are more likely to land you in the hospital than on the moon.  So, admire them from afar, but leave the foraging to the experts!


Black Morels

Black morels rise from the ashes like culinary phoenixes! Unlike their yellow cousins, these prized delicacies are triggered by fiery infernos.  The secret lies in their mycorrhizal partnership with conifer trees. Black morels form a beneficial connection with the trees' roots, but to fruit (produce mushrooms), they need a jolt.  Forest fire!  The fire sterilizes the soil, eliminates competition, and releases nutrients trapped in dead trees.  This ash-y bounty is the black morel's cue to grow, sprout and party!  While both black and yellow morels are delicious (though some say black morels have a smokier flavor), they're not the same species.  Think of them as cousins with very different triggers for a good time.  If you see a family of black morels standing proud in black ash (the year or two after a forest fire), it might just be a delicious phoenix awakening from the ashes.


Growth Patterns: Mushrooms as Fruits of the Mycelium

Mushrooms, including morels, can be likened to the fruits of an apple tree. The actual organism, known as the mycelium, lives predominantly underground or within decaying wood. The mycelium is a network of thread-like structures called hyphae, which spread extensively through the soil or substrate, breaking down organic matter and absorbing nutrients. When conditions are right, the mycelium produces fruiting bodies—the mushrooms—that emerge above ground to release spores, ensuring the propagation of the species.




The Mycelium: The Hidden Life Beneath

Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a vast network of hyphae. It plays a crucial role in the ecosystem by decomposing organic material, recycling nutrients, and forming symbiotic relationships with plants (mycorrhizae). This hidden network is essential for soil health, plant growth, and the overall functioning of ecosystems. The mycelium can live for many years and cover large areas, connecting different plants and trees through a symbiotic relationship known as the "Wood Wide Web."


Edibility and Poisonous Varieties

Not all mushrooms are safe to eat. While many, like morels, are edible and even highly prized, others can be extremely toxic. The toxicity in mushrooms is due to various compounds that can affect human physiology in different ways. For example, the Amanita genus contains some of the most poisonous species, such as the death cap (Amanita phalloides) and the destroying angel (Amanita bisporigera). These mushrooms produce potent toxins like amatoxins, which inhibit RNA polymerase II, leading to liver and kidney failure, and often death if ingested.


The Adage: "When in Doubt, Throw it Out"

The saying "When in doubt, throw it out" is a crucial guideline in mushroom foraging. The diversity of mushrooms and the difficulty in accurately identifying them make it easy to mistake a toxic species for an edible one. Many poisonous mushrooms resemble their edible counterparts, and even experienced foragers can be fooled. Therefore, it is better to discard any mushroom if there is any uncertainty about its identification to avoid potentially fatal consequences.


Cooking Morels: Lid or No Lid?

When cooking morels, it is advisable to do so without a lid. Morels, like many mushrooms, contain a significant amount of water. Cooking them without a lid allows the water to evaporate, concentrating their flavors and achieving the desired texture. Cooking them with a lid can trap steam, making the mushrooms soggy and diluting their taste.

Bioluminescent Mushrooms: Nature's Glow

Among the many wonders of the fungal kingdom are bioluminescent mushrooms. These fungi emit a natural glow thanks to a chemical reaction involving luciferin, a compound that produces light when it reacts with oxygen. Species like Mycena chlorophos and Panellus stipticus exhibit this phenomenon. The exact purpose of bioluminescence in mushrooms is still debated, but hypotheses include attracting insects for spore dispersal or deterring predators.


Mushroom Poisoning: A Fatal Risk

Indeed, people have died from consuming poisonous mushrooms. Cases of mushroom poisoning often involve species like the aforementioned Amanita phalloides or the galerina (Galerina marginata). Symptoms of mushroom poisoning can range from gastrointestinal distress to severe organ failure. Despite medical advances, treating mushroom poisoning can be challenging, and the best defense remains proper education and cautious foraging practices.


Death from Morels: Food Poisoning from Morel Mushrooms

A food poisoning outbreak linked to morel mushrooms from a Montana restaurant resulted in two deaths and 51 illnesses, highlighting the risks associated with this delicacy. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigated the incident at Dave's Sushi in Bozeman and identified undercooked or raw morels as the likely cause. This led to the FDA issuing its first guidelines on morel preparation, emphasizing that cooking can reduce toxin levels but not eliminate risk.


Jon Ebelt from Montana's health department noted the lack of comprehensive public health information on morels. Samples from Dave's Sushi showed no specific toxins. Aaron Parker, the restaurant owner, stated that morels are a costly seasonal item, and chefs were generally unaware of their potential toxicity. Parker found that boiling morels for 10-30 minutes is the safest preparation method.


The FDA's Food Code indicates that most of the 5,000+ mushroom species in North America have not been tested for toxicity, with a minority being deadly or toxic. Historical data from the North American Mycological Association recorded 1,641 mushroom poisoning cases from 1985-2006, with 129 involving morels but no deaths. Cooking is essential to reduce toxins in mushrooms. Marian Maxwell from the Puget Sound Mycological Society mentioned that morels might contain hydrazine, a potential carcinogen, which is mostly removed by cooking. Heather Hallen-Adams from the North American Mycological Association noted that while hydrazine is confirmed in false morels, its presence in true morels is less clear.


Morel-related food poisoning in restaurants is rare, with notable incidents in Spain (2019) and Vancouver (2019). FDA guidelines now require regulatory approval for serving wild mushrooms. Regulations vary by state, with some allowing wild mushrooms from licensed sellers. Improved communication and labeling are needed to ensure chefs and consumers are aware of the proper preparation methods for morels. The North American Mycological Association plans to update its guidelines, and Montana's health department will issued morel safety guidelines in the spring 2024.


Conclusion

Morel mushrooms, with their distinctive appearance and delectable flavor, are just one part of the vast and intriguing fungal kingdom. Understanding their growth, the role of mycelium, and the importance of safe foraging practices enhances our appreciation of these organisms. As we uncover more about the hidden life beneath the soil, we gain insights into the essential roles fungi play in our ecosystems. The study of mushrooms not only enriches our culinary experiences but also deepens our understanding of the natural world.


Black Morel and Yellow Morel. Art by Patrick Folgert

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Yellowstone National Park, a tapestry of geysers, steaming mud pots, and sprawling meadows, is also a stage for a fascinating drama – the love lives of wolves. Unlike Hallmark movies, wolf courtship is less about roses and chocolates, and more about survival and pack hierarchy. There's a complexity to their social structures and pup-rearing that's nothing short of remarkable.



Pups on the Prowl: A Valentine's Day Surprise?

While February 14th might be synonymous with love for us humans, wolf mating typically occurs a little earlier, between late January and mid-February. This ensures the pups are born in the spring, when prey is abundant and weather conditions are milder.


The Dance of the Alphas: Mating and Pack Dynamics

Wolves are monogamous within a pack, meaning the breeding falls to the alpha pair – the dominant male and female. Mating behavior involves a series of rituals, including scent marking, vocalizations, and playful chasing. It's a fascinating display of cooperation and dominance within the pack.


Mechanics of Mating: A Tail Wagging Affair (Mostly)

The actual mating process is similar to other canines.  The alpha male mounts the alpha female, and a tie-like knot forms during mating, which can last for up to 30 minutes. Interestingly, other pack members might be present during this time, but they usually show submissive behavior towards the breeding pair.


Sticking with One Mate? The Not-So-Black-and-White Truth

While monogamy is the norm, there can be exceptions. If the alpha male is injured or dies, a subordinate male (beta) might breed with the alpha female. This helps ensure the continuation of the bloodline within the pack.


A Litter of Joy, But Not Without Challenges

The alpha female typically gives birth to 4-7 pups in a den, which could be an abandoned burrow, a rocky outcrop, or even under a fallen log. Sadly, not all pups survive. The first few weeks are critical, and only about 50% of pups reach adulthood. Factors like harsh weather, predation, and disease can take a toll.



A Coat of Many Colors: The Mystery of Wolf Pup Fur

Unlike human babies with their predictable pink tones, wolf pups come in a variety of fur colors – grey, black, and even white. The exact reason for this variation is still being researched, but it might be related to camouflage or signaling dominance within the litter.


Once the alpha female gives birth, usually in a secluded den, the entire pack helps in raising the pups. This cooperative breeding strategy is vital for the pups’ survival. Other pack members bring food to the mother and the pups, and once the pups are old enough, they help protect and teach them. This communal effort ensures that the pups have a higher chance of survival in the wild.


Eye Color: A Window to the Pack's Future

Similar to fur color, wolf pup eye color can vary from blue to amber. Interestingly, studies suggest that pups with lighter-colored eyes tend to disperse from the pack earlier to find mates, while those with darker eyes might stay within the pack structure for longer.


Alpha: More Than Just a Title

The term "alpha" gets thrown around a lot, but in the wolf world, it holds significant weight. The alpha pair are the experienced leaders who make crucial decisions for the pack, from hunting strategies to territory defense. They also get first dibs on food and are responsible for maintaining order within the pack.

Hunting and Survival

Wolves are apex predators, meaning they are at the top of the food chain. In Yellowstone, they primarily hunt elk, but they also take down other large mammals such as bison, deer, and even smaller animals like rabbits and rodents when necessary. Hunting in packs allows them to take down prey much larger than an individual wolf could manage alone. Their hunting strategy relies heavily on cooperation, communication, and the roles each wolf plays during the hunt.



Impact on Ecosystem

The reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone in 1995 has had profound effects on the ecosystem. This is a prime example of a trophic cascade, where the presence of top predators like wolves influences the population and behavior of other species in the ecosystem. Wolves help control the populations of large herbivores like elk, which in turn allows vegetation to recover, benefiting other wildlife and even altering the physical landscape of rivers and streams due to changes in grazing patterns.


Beyond the Basics: A Look at Wolf Communication and Social Bonds

Understanding wolf mating and pup-rearing is just one piece of the puzzle. These social creatures communicate through a complex system of vocalizations, body language, and scent marking. Their pack structure is fascinating, with strong bonds between members that ensure the survival of not just the pups, but the entire pack unit. Yellowstone's wolves are closely monitored by researchers, providing valuable data on their behavior, genetics, and interaction with the environment. However, wolves sometimes come into conflict with human activities, particularly livestock farming. Understanding wolf behavior and promoting coexistence strategies are essential for reducing conflicts and ensuring the long-term survival of wolf populations.


Human Consciousness and Desire for Dominance on the Landscape

When European settlers began moving westward in North America during the 19th century, their primary goals were to acquire land, resources, and opportunities for a better life. This expansionist mindset often led to a significant and sometimes ruthless transformation of the landscape. The settlers' actions were driven by a combination of economic motives, survival needs, and a cultural belief in manifest destiny—the idea that it was their divine right to expand across the continent.


Why Early Settlers Killed Wildlife

  1. Economic Gain: The fur trade was highly lucrative, leading to the extensive trapping of beavers and other fur-bearing animals. Bison hides and bones were valuable commodities, and hunting bison became a way to make a living. Additionally, the elimination of bison was seen as a means to undermine Native American tribes, who relied on the bison for food, clothing, and tools.

  2. Agricultural and Ranching Needs: Settlers viewed wolves, bears, and other predators as threats to their livestock. To protect their cattle, sheep, and other animals, they often engaged in large-scale predator control, including poisoning, shooting, and trapping wolves and bears.

  3. Lack of Ecological Awareness: During the 19th century, there was limited understanding of ecology and the importance of biodiversity. Many settlers did not recognize the long-term consequences of their actions, such as species extinction and ecological imbalance. The concept of extinction was not well understood or appreciated; people often believed that wildlife populations were inexhaustible.


Changes Over the Past 100 Years

  1. Conservation Movement: By the early 20th century, the devastating effects of overhunting and habitat destruction became apparent. This led to the emergence of the conservation movement. Key figures like John Muir and Theodore Roosevelt advocated for the protection of natural areas and wildlife. The establishment of national parks, wildlife refuges, and laws like the Endangered Species Act (1973) were pivotal in protecting wildlife.

  2. Scientific Research: Advances in ecological science provided a deeper understanding of the interconnectedness of ecosystems. Researchers began to study the roles of various species within their habitats, leading to greater appreciation for predators like wolves and their role in maintaining ecological balance.

  3. Reintroduction Programs: Efforts to restore native species have been significant. The reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone in 1995 is a notable example, demonstrating how predators can positively affect ecosystems by controlling prey populations and promoting biodiversity.


Contemporary Issues with Ranchers and Wildlife

Despite the progress in wildlife conservation, there remain conflicts between ranchers and predators like wolves and bears. In states like Montana, some ranchers view these animals as threats to their livestock and livelihoods.

  1. Economic Impact: Livestock depredation by wolves and bears can result in financial losses for ranchers. While compensation programs exist, not all losses are reported or compensated, leading to ongoing tension.

  2. Cultural and Historical Attitudes: Long-standing beliefs about wolves and bears being dangerous pests persist. These attitudes are rooted in the historical conflicts between humans and predators.

  3. Conservation Efforts and Solutions: To address these conflicts, various strategies have been implemented, including:

  • Compensation Programs: Governments and conservation organizations provide financial compensation to ranchers for livestock losses due to predators.

  • Non-lethal Deterrents: Using guard dogs, fencing, and other deterrents to protect livestock from predators.

  • Community Engagement: Promoting coexistence through education and collaboration between ranchers, conservationists, and government agencies.


Disappointment in the Wild: A Young Wolf's Tragic End

"In February 2024, a story emerged from Wyoming that shattered our hope for wildlife protection.  A young wolf, full of potential and curiosity, was struck by a snowmobile driven by Cody Roberts.  Instead of helping the injured animal, Mr. Roberts inflicted further pain. He took the wolf, taped its mouth shut, and subjected it to hours of cruelty in a public bar.


The image of a terrified, young creature suffering for hours is something none of us want to imagine.  It's a stark reminder of the vulnerability of wildlife and the darkness that can exist in our world.  The Wyoming Game and Fish Department, entrusted with protecting wildlife, levied a minimal fine – a mere $250 – as punishment for this act.  


This tragedy exposes a flaw in the system. Delisting wolves from federal protection placed their fate in the hands of state agencies.  Sadly, the events in Wyoming suggest this may not have been the best decision. Furthermore, allowing unrestricted hunting and trapping in most predator zones creates a situation where wolves are seen as expendable rather than valuable members of the ecosystem.  This approach feels like a step backwards, not a step towards responsible wildlife management.

We, your classmates, believe stronger regulations and enforcement are needed.  We deserve better from those entrusted with protecting these magnificent creatures. The fight isn't over. Organizations are working to relist wolves under the Endangered Species Act, ensuring they receive the protection they deserve.  This is more than just about one wolf; it's about ensuring a future where all wildlife is valued and protected. Let's use this tragedy as a catalyst for change. "


Conclusion

Understanding the history of human-wildlife interactions in the American West helps us appreciate the complex relationship between humans and nature. While early settlers may not have recognized the consequences of their actions, contemporary society has made significant strides in wildlife conservation. However, balancing the needs of human communities with the protection of wildlife remains an ongoing challenge that requires continued effort and cooperation. Yellowstone's wolves offer a captivating glimpse into the intricate world of predator-prey relationships and the delicate balance of an ecosystem. By studying these magnificent creatures, we gain a deeper appreciation for the wild wonders that surround us.





A STORY: A Change of Heart in Paradise Valley (by Jere Folgert)

In the heart of Paradise Valley, not far from the warm embrace of Chico Hot Springs, lived Joseph, a rugged Montana rancher with over 200 head of Black Angus cattle. Joseph's life was steeped in tradition and a belief in manifest destiny. He believed it was his right and duty to control the land and protect his cattle from any threat, especially the wolves and bears that roamed the nearby wilderness. Each year, he sent cattle off for slaughter, making about $62,000 from the sale of beef destined to become hamburger.


Joseph's disdain for wolves and bears was legendary among his neighbors. Armed with a .308 rifle, he took pleasure in checking his live traps, often finding wolves caught by the leg. He would take aim, pull the trigger, and watch as the wolves shook and died. This grim ritual gave him a sense of control over his domain.


One brisk autumn morning, Joseph set out on his usual rounds. The air was crisp, and the mountains stood tall against the clear blue sky. He approached one of his traps, expecting to find another wolf ensnared. To his surprise, he found a young wolf pup caught not by the leg, but by the tail. The pup looked up at him with wide, frightened eyes.


Joseph raised his rifle, ready to end the pup's life. He pulled the trigger, but instead of the deafening roar of a gunshot, he heard only a click. The gun had misfired. He laughed at the irony and approached the pup, his heart unexpectedly softened by its innocence.


Without a second thought, Joseph knelt down and carefully released the pup from the trap. Instead of running away, the little wolf followed him, limping slightly but staying close. Intrigued and amused, Joseph allowed the pup to accompany him for the rest of the day. He shared his lunch with the wolf, feeding it scraps of jerky and bread.


As days turned into weeks, Joseph found himself caring for the wolf pup as if it were a stray dog. He named the pup Shadow for the way it followed him everywhere. Shadow grew stronger and more attached to Joseph, who, in turn, found a new sense of companionship and responsibility in caring for the wild creature.


Raising Shadow brought Joseph a deeper understanding of wolves. He began to see them not as enemies, but as intelligent and social animals, much like his own cattle. The bond he formed with Shadow changed his perspective. Joseph no longer saw wolves as mere predators but as vital parts of the ecosystem.


From that day forward, Joseph vowed never to shoot another wolf. Instead, he adopted non-lethal methods to protect his cattle. He installed high, predator-proof fencing and employed guard dogs to deter wolves. He also worked with wildlife conservationists to learn more about coexistence strategies.


Joseph's transformation didn't go unnoticed. His neighbors saw the changes he made and the way he spoke about wolves with newfound respect. Slowly, his story spread, inspiring other ranchers to reconsider their own practices.

Joseph's income from his cattle remained steady, but his heart felt richer than ever. He had not only saved a life but also gained a friend and a profound respect for the wild creatures that shared his land. In the end, Joseph found a balance between his livelihood and the natural world, proving that understanding and compassion could forge a path to coexistence.




  • by Jere Folgert. Bozeman Montana.

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Updated: Apr 30

Grizzly #399 was strolling her neighborhood with two playful and rowdy cubs.



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Grizzly bear number 399 wasn't always a superstar. Back in the day, researchers with the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team just called her bear number 399, kind of boring, right? But this grizzly climbed the ranks of fame faster than a bear cub up a tree. By 2017, she was already 21 years old (ancient for a grizzly, most only hang around for 25 years, according to National Geographic).


Here's the thing about fame, though. While 399 loves a good photoshoot with tourists snapping pics, all the attention comes with a bit of a furry inconvenience. Imagine trying to cross the street to get to your favorite berry patch, but instead of a normal crosswalk, you find a line of noisy cars, smelly trucks, and rumbling campers stretching as far as the eye can see. That's what it's like for 399 when these excited fans (sometimes a little too excited) crowd the roads, making it tough for her to just get across the street in her own neighborhood!


Grizzly # 399 was assigned to this female grizzly by researchers with the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team. In 2017, her age is/was estimated to be 21 years old. The average life span of a grizzly bear in the wild is 25 years (source: national geographic).

#399 is considered to be a "celebrity bear", and attracts large crowds of humans. Unfortunately for her, these humans and their loud and smelly transportation machines (cars, trucks, campers and motorcycles) often form an extended 'human chain' along roadways. Individual humans, seeking a good view of 399 and her cubs, collectively create a barrier which often inhibits her from crossing the belt of asphalt that bisects sections of her home territory.

Grizzly bears once roamed most of western North America, from the high plains to the Pacific coast. As humans moved west across the Great Plains, conflict with these bears increased. When Lewis and Clark traversed the western United States in the early 19th century, an estimated 50,000 to 100,000 grizzlies roamed the land between the Pacific Ocean and the Great Plains. Captain Lewis and his party observed many grizzly bears on their travels.

On May 5, 1805, Lewis wrote,

Capt. Clark and Drewyer killed the largest brown bear this evening which we have yet seen. it was a most tremendious looking anamal, and extreemly hard to kill notwithstanding he had five balls through his lungs and five others in various parts he swam more than half the distance across the river to a sandbar & it was at least twenty minutes before he died; he did not attempt to attact, but fled and made the most tremendous roaring from the moment he was shot. We had no means of weighing this monster; Capt. Clark thought he would weigh 500 lbs. he measured 8 Feet 7½ Inches from the nose to the extremety of the hind feet, 5 Feet. 10½ Inch arround the breast, 1 Feet. 11 I. arround the middle of the arm, & 3 Feet. 11 I. arround the neck; his tallons which were five in number on each foot were 4⅜ Inches in length. he was in good order, we therefore divided him among the party and made them boil the oil and put it in a cask for future uce; the oil is as hard as hogs lard when cool, much more so than that of the black bear. this bear differs from the common black bear in several respects; it's tallons are much longer and more blont, it's tale shorter, it's hair which is of a redish or bey brown, is longer thicker and finer than that of the black bear; his liver lungs and heart are much larger even in proportion with his size; the heart particularly was as large as that of a large Ox. his maw was also ten times the size of black bear, and was filled with flesh and fish. his testicles were pendant from the belly and placed four inches assunder in seperate bags or pouches.— this animal also feeds on roots and almost every species of wild fruit.

Luckily, Captain Clark & Drewyer did not kill 399's great ancestors.

In the early 1900's, grizzly bears were eliminated from 90% of their original range. They were thought to be just too dangerous. Settlers and farmers viewed bears as potential competitors for most foods valued by humans, and their domesticated livestock. Unregulated killing of bears continued in most places through the 1950’s and resulted in a further 52% decline in their range between 1920 and 1970. (source: http://westernwildlife.org)

We now know, grizzly bears play an important role in keeping the whole natural system healthy.

Grizzly bears have many factors weighted against them. Some are killed or injured by fast-moving vehicles. Others are killed by humans in self-defense. If you plan a visit to Yellowstone or Grand Teton National Parks, give the wildlife lots of space. Drive slowly, especially at night. More than one hundred animals are typically killed each year by vehicles. Many other animals are injured.

If you hike the National Park trails, carry bear spray.

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For more information on grizzly 399, check out the book "Grizzlies of Pilgrim Creek", an extraordinary life and death celebration of famous Grizzly 399 by Thomas D. Mangelsen and Todd Wilkinson.

https://www.mangelsen.com/grizzly

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/05/160511-grizzly-bear-399-spotted-with-cub/

https://www.facebook.com/grizzliesofpilgrimcreek/

Jere Folgert

FolgertStudio.com

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Grizzly 399
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